This module implements a number of Python exceptions you can raise from within your views to trigger a standard non-200 response.
from werkzeug.wrappers import BaseRequest from werkzeug.wsgi import responder from werkzeug.exceptions import HTTPException, NotFound def view(request): raise NotFound() @responder def application(environ, start_response): request = BaseRequest(environ) try: return view(request) except HTTPException as e: return e
As you can see from this example those exceptions are callable WSGI applications. Because of Python 2.4 compatibility those do not extend from the response objects but only from the python exception class.
As a matter of fact they are not Werkzeug response objects. However you can get a response object by calling get_response() on a HTTP exception.
Keep in mind that you have to pass an environment to get_response() because some errors fetch additional information from the WSGI environment.
If you want to hook in a different exception page to say, a 404 status code, you can add a second except for a specific subclass of an error:
@responder def application(environ, start_response): request = BaseRequest(environ) try: return view(request) except NotFound, e: return not_found(request) except HTTPException, e: return e
The following error classes exist in Werkzeug:
400 Bad Request
Raise if the browser sends something to the application the application or server cannot handle.
Raise if the user is not authorized. Also used if you want to use HTTP basic auth.
Raise if the user doesn’t have the permission for the requested resource but was authenticated.
404 Not Found
Raise if a resource does not exist and never existed.
405 Method Not Allowed
Raise if the server used a method the resource does not handle. For example POST if the resource is view only. Especially useful for REST.
The first argument for this exception should be a list of allowed methods. Strictly speaking the response would be invalid if you don’t provide valid methods in the header which you can do with that list.
406 Not Acceptable
Raise if the server can’t return any content conforming to the Accept headers of the client.
408 Request Timeout
Raise to signalize a timeout.
Raise to signal that a request cannot be completed because it conflicts with the current state on the server.
New in version 0.7.
Raise if a resource existed previously and went away without new location.
411 Length Required
Raise if the browser submitted data but no Content-Length header which is required for the kind of processing the server does.
412 Precondition Failed
Status code used in combination with If-Match, If-None-Match, or If-Unmodified-Since.
413 Request Entity Too Large
The status code one should return if the data submitted exceeded a given limit.
414 Request URI Too Large
Like 413 but for too long URLs.
415 Unsupported Media Type
The status code returned if the server is unable to handle the media type the client transmitted.
416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable
The client asked for a part of the file that lies beyond the end of the file.
New in version 0.7.
417 Expectation Failed
The server cannot meet the requirements of the Expect request-header.
New in version 0.7.
418 I’m a teapot
The server should return this if it is a teapot and someone attempted to brew coffee with it.
New in version 0.7.
428 Precondition Required
The server requires this request to be conditional, typically to prevent the lost update problem, which is a race condition between two or more clients attempting to update a resource through PUT or DELETE. By requiring each client to include a conditional header (“If-Match” or “If-Unmodified- Since”) with the proper value retained from a recent GET request, the server ensures that each client has at least seen the previous revision of the resource.
429 Too Many Requests
The server is limiting the rate at which this user receives responses, and this request exceeds that rate. (The server may use any convenient method to identify users and their request rates). The server may include a “Retry-After” header to indicate how long the user should wait before retrying.
431 Request Header Fields Too Large
The server refuses to process the request because the header fields are too large. One or more individual fields may be too large, or the set of all headers is too large.
500 Internal Server Error
Raise if an internal server error occurred. This is a good fallback if an unknown error occurred in the dispatcher.
501 Not Implemented
Raise if the application does not support the action requested by the browser.
502 Bad Gateway
If you do proxying in your application you should return this status code if you received an invalid response from the upstream server it accessed in attempting to fulfill the request.
503 Service Unavailable
Status code you should return if a service is temporarily unavailable.
This exception is used to signal unicode decode errors of request data. For more information see the Unicode chapter.
Internal exception that is raised if Werkzeug detects a disconnected client. Since the client is already gone at that point attempting to send the error message to the client might not work and might ultimately result in another exception in the server. Mainly this is here so that it is silenced by default as far as Werkzeug is concerned.
Since disconnections cannot be reliably detected and are unspecified by WSGI to a large extend this might or might not be raised if a client is gone.
New in version 0.8.
Raised if something triggers a security error. This is otherwise exactly like a bad request error.
New in version 0.9.
All the exceptions implement this common interface:
Baseclass for all HTTP exceptions. This exception can be called as WSGI application to render a default error page or you can catch the subclasses of it independently and render nicer error messages.
Call the exception as WSGI application.
Get a response object. If one was passed to the exception it’s returned directly.
|Parameters:||environ – the optional environ for the request. This can be used to modify the response depending on how the request looked like.|
|Returns:||a Response object or a subclass thereof.|
Starting with Werkzeug 0.3 some of the builtin classes raise exceptions that look like regular python exceptions (eg KeyError) but are BadRequest HTTP exceptions at the same time. This decision was made to simplify a common pattern where you want to abort if the client tampered with the submitted form data in a way that the application can’t recover properly and should abort with 400 BAD REQUEST.
Assuming the application catches all HTTP exceptions and reacts to them properly a view function could do the following savely and doesn’t have to check if the keys exist:
def new_post(request): post = Post(title=request.form['title'], body=request.form['body']) post.save() return redirect(post.url)
Sometimes it’s convenient to just raise an exception by the error code, without importing the exception and looking up the name etc. For this purpose there is the abort() function.
It can be passed a WSGI application or a status code. If a status code is given it’s looked up in the list of exceptions from above and will raise that exception, if passed a WSGI application it will wrap it in a proxy WSGI exception and raise that:
abort(404) abort(Response('Hello World'))
If you want to use this functionality with custom exceptions you can create an instance of the aborter class:
When passed a dict of code -> exception items it can be used as callable that raises exceptions. If the first argument to the callable is an integer it will be looked up in the mapping, if it’s a WSGI application it will be raised in a proxy exception.
The rest of the arguments are forwarded to the exception constructor.
As you can see from the list above not all status codes are available as errors. Especially redirects and ather non 200 status codes that represent do not represent errors are missing. For redirects you can use the redirect() function from the utilities.
If you want to add an error yourself you can subclass HTTPException:
from werkzeug.exceptions import HTTPException class PaymentRequired(HTTPException): code = 402 description = '<p>Payment required.</p>'
This is the minimal code you need for your own exception. If you want to add more logic to the errors you can override the get_description(), get_body(), get_headers() and get_response() methods. In any case you should have a look at the sourcecode of the exceptions module.
You can override the default description in the constructor with the description parameter (it’s the first argument for all exceptions except of the MethodNotAllowed which accepts a list of allowed methods as first argument):
raise BadRequest('Request failed because X was not present')